Tree Terminal - Continued

Wild Guava or Kumbhi (Careya Arborea/कुंभी) is a moderate-sized, deciduous, beautiful tree having lovely aromatic white flowers & leaves which turn red in the cold season.
In India the tussar silkworm is fed on the leaves. As a fodder the fruit is given to cattle. It makes a good shade tree. This tree needs to be introduced to urban societies and home gardens.
It pacifies vitiated kapha, tumor, cough, bronchitis, worms, diarrhea, leukoderma, epilepsy and ulcers. The tree, especially the sepals of the flowers are well-known Indian remedies and are valued on account of their astringent & mucilaginous properties, being administered internally in coughs & colds and applied externally as an embrocation.
The bark yields a good fibre for coarse cordage and sacking. It is also used as a tan and a dye. The fibrous bark contains a brown dye.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Apiculture, Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban

Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna/अर्जुन) is a large size deciduous tree having yellow flowers and conical leaves. Its fruit is fibrous woody, glabrous with 5 hard wings. It has a buttressed trunk and a vast spreading crown from which the branches drop downwards.
It gives green manure.
Arjun is one of the sacred tree of India. It has acquired the social and religious sanctity with the passage of time. It is said that Arjun has been born of the two sons of Kubera after Saint Narada cursed him. The leaves and flowers of this tree are offered to the Lord Vishnu and Lord Ganpati on the several religious occasions.
According to Ayurvedic texts it also very useful in the treatment of any sort of pain due to falls, ecchymosis, spermatorrhoea and sexually transmitted diseases. It is thought to be a useful astringent, cooling, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, tonic and is used for ulcers, leucorrhoea, diabetes, cough, tumour, excessive perspiration, asthma, inflammation and skin disorders etc.
Arjun was introduced into the Materia Medica of Ayurveda as a treatment for heart disease by Vagbhata (7th century). Research suggests that it is useful in alleviating the pain of Angina Pectoralis and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fertilizer, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Sacred, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Baheda (Terminalia Bellerica/बेहडा, बिभितकी) is a large deciduous tree having greenish white, simple flowers which appear along with new leaves and have a strong honey-like smell. Also known as Bibhitaki, as it is said to make a person fearless from all types of diseases. It is a light demander and fairly drought resistant. It coppices well after pollarding.
The leaves are extensively used as fodder. yields a good-quality charcoal. The seeds have an oil content of 40%, whose fatty-acid methyl ester meets all of the major bio-diesel requirements in the USA, Germany and European Union.
It works in diseases of every system. The fruit rind is astringent, laxative, anthelmintic, pungent, germicidal and antipyretic. It is applied in a diverse range of conditions including cough, tuberculosis, eye diseases, anti-HIV-1, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation of small intestine, flatulence, liver disease, leprosy, cleanse the blood and promote hair growth.. Fruit extracts have anti-bacterial activity against Micrococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli.
The fruit produces tannins and dyes used for leather tanning, dyeing of clothes, matting and inks. The kernel produces a non-edible oil used in toilet soap and is good for hair.
It is grown as an avenue tree or as an ornamental.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Biofuel, Coppiceable, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Sacred, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Chebulic Myrobalan or Indian Gall-Nut (Terminalia Chebula/हिरडा, हरितकी) is a flowering evergreen tree.
It is highly regarded as the 'King of Medicines' in the Ayurvedic Medicine. It is reputed to cure blindness and is believed to inhibit the growth of the malignant tumours. It is allegedly also a powerful detox agent.
Haritaki is a rejuvenating, laxative, astringent, anthelmintic, nervine, expectorant, tonic, carminative and appetite stimulant. It is used in people having a wide range of complaints and symptoms like leprosy & skin disorders, anemia, narcosis, piles, chronic, intermittent fever, heart disease, diarrhea, anorexia, cough and excessive secretion of mucus.
According to the Bhavaprakasha, Haritaki was derived from a drop of nectar from Indra’s cup.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Avenue, Drought Tolerant, Evergreen, Medicinal, Sacred, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Indian Almond (Terminalia Catappa/जंगली बदाम) is a tall, erect, deciduous & conspicuous tree. With a brilliant red-and-yellow display of leaf colour before shedding leaves and its fast growth, it is one of the favourite garden tree.
The kernel can be eaten raw or roasted and has an almond-like taste. The foliage can be used as a feed for silkworms and other animal feeds. It acts as a soil improver as it is a good provider of mulch for the protection of soil and young crops.
It is tolerant of drought & salt spray and is a promising species for reforestation of sandy areas. The trees vast root system binds together both sands & poor soils and prevents erosion.
The parts of the tree are useful for bilious fever, diarrhoea, thrush, as a dressing for swollen rheumatic joints and as a remedy for sores & abscesses. The young leaves are used to cure headaches and colic.
The trunk is a source of gum. In leaf all the year round, the tree casts a heavy shade that is useful in gardens, school grounds or urban areas.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Food, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Indian Laurel (Terminalia Tomentosa/ऐन, सादड) is a large deciduous tree. It is casually known as Crocodile Bark tree due to the characteristic bark pattern.
The leaves can be used as fodder & even fed to silkworms.
It has a remarkable attribute; it may store water in the dry season. A survey conducted at Bandipur National Park, India showed that a proportion of trees store water and there is a girth dependent increase in the frequency and amount of water. Water stored in the stem is often tapped and used as a source of potable water in the summer by forest folk. It is also thought to have curative value for stomach pain.
The parts of the tree are used medicinally. This tree needs to be introduced to urban area.
The fruit yields tannin to dye and tan leather.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Marking Nut (Semecarpus Anacardium/ बिब्बा भिलावा) is a highly medicinal, deciduous tree with beautiful foliage.
The nut yields a powerful and bitter astringent principle used everywhere in India as a substitute for marking ink. It gives a black colour to cotton fabrics. The fruits are also used as a dye.
They are also largely employed in Indian medicine. The fleshy cups on which the nuts rest and the kernels of the nuts are eaten.
A varnish is prepared from an acrid, viscid juice extracted from its bark.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Medicinal, Ornamental, Sacred, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Calotropis or Sodom Apple (Calotropis Procera/रुई) is a small tree having beautiful flowers. It is drought-resistant & moderately salt-tolerant species. It is a food source of the larval stage of the Lesser Wanderer Butterfly.
It is a source of green manure. The plant can help improve soil water conditions and also acts as a soil binder. It also helps in Pollution control as it is an ideal plant for monitoring Sulphur Dioxide emissions in the air. It is a suitable indicator of exhausted soil.
It is considered sacred and flowers are devoted to God Hanumanta.
The tree has numerous medicinal properties, mainly used in the treatment and cure of leprosy and elephantiasis. It is also used as an anthelmintic, for colic, cough, whooping cough, dysentery, headache, lice treatment, jaundice, sore gums & mouth, toothache, sterility, swellings and ulcers.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Avenue, Drought Tolerant, Evergreen, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Medicinal, Ornamental, Sacred, Soil Reclamation, Urban

Pala-Indigo or Kalakuda (Wrightia tinctoria/ काळा-कुडा, दुधी) is a small, deciduous tree with white flowers. From a distance, the fragrant flowers may appear like snow flakes on a tree.
The liquid latex of tree can be used as a renewable source of hydrocarbons and intermediate energy resources. Latex is also a source of rubber. Additional minor uses include dyes & tanning.
It is a good agroforestry species as it intercrop well. It is suitable for arid, semi-arid and moist regions with a wide range of soil types, especially dry sandy sites or hillsides and valleys. The branches are trampled into the puddle soil in rice field for green manuring. It improves the soil. It coppices well & grows moderately fast. The leaves are lopped for livestock fodder. This tree needs to be introduced to urban area.
In Indian traditional medicine, the bark and leaves are used to treat psoriasis, stomach pains and dysentery.
The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots is a sources of indigo-yielding glucoside, which produces a blue dye or indigo-like dye.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Apiculture, Avenue, Coppiceable, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Tree Terminal

Trees... Indian trees are famous for their majesty and grandeur.
Now we have got acquainted with various Native Trees of India. You must have noticed few of them in your neighbourhood, excited to observe some wonderful trees or must be surprised to see some trees that are new to You! But still there are few trees prevalent in wild which need to get attention from tree-lovers. So here is the collection of trees that are not showcased on our blog till now.. Trees that we need to know..!

Phalsa (Grewia Asiatica/ फालसा) is a small deciduous tree. It is very hardy & capable of existing under severe conditions.
The ripe fruits are eaten as a dessert. Their taste and flavour are very much liked. A refreshing drink prepared from the juice, commonly known as Phalsa Sherbet, is considered a delicacy throughout the hot summer months. 
According to Ayurveda, the fruits are a cooling tonic & aphrodisiac; they allay thirst & burning sensations, remove biliousness, cure inflammation, heart & blood disorders and fevers. The fruit is also good against throat trouble. The bark is used as a demulcent. It cures urinary troubles and relieves burning sensation. The leaves also are used medicinally, chiefly for external applications.
The tree improves the soil. It has been proved that the plantations of Phalsa increased organic Carbon, available Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium in the soil and reduced Calcium Carbonate, pH & bulk density due to litter production greater than that of other fruit trees.
It is propagated by seeds. 
Labels: Agroforestry, Apiculture, Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Food, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban

Sandalwood (Santalum Album/चंदन) is a small, beautiful, drought-hardy evergreen tree. It is the state tree of Karnataka. It has small catchy flowers. Its branches grow densely & are capable of intercepting high wind velocity, thus protecting crops.
It is sometimes lopped for fodder; the foliage is palatable to grazing animals such as rabbits, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses & camels.
The tree is planted in house gardens as an ornamental. It can be planted along hedges and field boundaries. It acts as a Soil improver, leaves make good green manure.
The tree has medicinal properties and is widely used in cosmetics.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Evergreen, Drought Tolerant, Fertilizer, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, State Tree, Wind Break, Urban

Crape Jasmine (Tabernaemontana Divaricata/चांदणी) is a small, wonderful, evergreen tree. It blooms in spring but flowers throughout the year. The waxy blossoms are white five-petaled pinwheels that are borne in small clusters on the stem tips. Flowers are commonly used in Pooja in North and South India.
The tree pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, diseases of the eye, headache, skin diseases, bleeding disorder, itching, and arthritis.
This beautiful tree rather fast rate of growth makes it a good plant for new gardens, especially shady ones where it provides structure and form. This plant's best feature is its delightful fragrance which got it the name of Crepe Jasmine, even though it is not related to the true Jasmines.
It is propagated by cuttings.
Labels: Avenue, Evergreen, Fast Growing, Live Fencing, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban

Teak/Indian Oak (Tectona Grandis/साग) is a deciduous tree, having small, beautiful fragrant white flowers and papery leaves. Teak is not a garden plant, but is a very important candidate in an ecosystem. Due to its tall growing nature, it is a preferred roosting and nesting site for number of birds.
Teak is used as a food plant by the larvae of moths of the genus Endoclita including E. aroura, E. chalybeatus, E. damor, E. gmelina, E. malabaricus, E. sericeus and E. signifer and other Lepidoptera including Turnip Moth. :-)
According to Ayurveda, it is acrid, cooling, laxative, sedative to gravid uterus and useful in treatment of piles, leucoderma and dysentery. Flowers are acrid, bitter and dry and useful in bronchitis, biliousness, urinary discharges etc. Roots are useful in treatment of urinary system related troubles. According to Unani system of medicine, the oil from flower is hair promoter and useful in scabies.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Medicinal, Ornamental, Soil Reclamation, Urban

Sal (Shorea Robusta/साल) is tall, handsome semi-evergreen tree. It is the state tree of both Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh.
In Hindu tradition, the Sal is said to be favored by Lord Vishnu. The Sal is an object of worship among Buddhists and Hindus in India as well as the adjoining countries. The legend has it that the famous Lumbini tract where Lord Buddha had sat for meditation and acquired salvation constituted a thick forest of Sal trees.
The leaves can be used as roughage for cattle and are fed to a tasar silk-producing worm.
The dry leaves of Sal are a major source for the production of leaf plates and leaf bowls in Northern and Eastern India. The used leaves/plates are readily eaten by goats and cattle. The tree has therefore protected Northern India from a flood of Styrofoam and plastic plates that would have caused tremendous pollution.
Sal tree resin is used as an astringent in Ayurvedic medicine. It is also burned as incense in Hindu ceremonies and Sal seeds & fruit are a source of lamp oil & vegetable fat.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Drought Tolerant, Evergreen, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Medicinal, Sacred, Shade, Soil Reclamation, State Tree, Urban, Wind Break

Hingon (Balanites Aegyptiaca/हिंगणबेट) is a spiny, evergreen, small tree with rounded, dense crown.
It coppices & pollards well & can regenerate after lopping & heavy browsing. The fresh & dried leaves, fruit and sprouts are all eaten by livestock. Kernel meal, the residue remaining after oil extraction can be also used as stock feed. As a thorny tree, it is useful for fencing, boundary and amenity plantings. It produces high-quality charcoal.
The usually evergreen behaviour potentially makes the tree an attractive element to introduce into shelterbelts.
The kernels produce edible oil used for cooking. The oil remains stable when heated and has a high smoking point. Its scent and taste are acceptable.
Medicinally, decoction of root is used to treat malaria. Many parts of the tree are used against oedema, stomach pains, heartburn, chest pains. In wild, many carnivores and even herbivores utilizes the fruit for deworming. It is also used to deworm cattle in many parts of India.
A greenish-yellow to orange-red resin is produced from the stems which is useful in industrial work.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Drought Tolerant, Evergreen, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Live Fencing, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break


Black Ebony or Tendu (Diospyros Melanoxylon/ टेंभूर्णी, तेंदू) is drought & frost hardy deciduous tree. It is light-demanding & coppiceable, tolerance to pruning makes it a good fodder tree. Its fruit is edible & is delicious.
Its cultivation on field boundaries or distributed in field crops, such as oilseed and cereal crops, appears to be a feasible and attractive proposition. Its deep tap-rooting habit would minimize competition with annual crops. It gives good quality charcoal.
The tree has been revered in Ayurvedic medicine. The seeds have been prescribed as a cure for mental disorders, nervous breakdowns and palpitations of the heart. The fruits have a cooling and an astringent effect. Dried flowers are reportedly useful in urinary, skin and blood diseases. The bark is astringent; its decoction is used in diarrhoea.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Food, Live Fencing, Medicinal, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Chaste tree (Vitex Negundo/निर्गुंडी) is a small tree with bluish-purple, small flowers. It grows fairly fast & is coppiceable. Its leaves have insecticidal properties and are laid over stored grain to ward off insects. They are also used to get rid of mosquitoes. But at the same time, the leaves serve as fodder plant for some butterflies. 
Its roots are strong, deep and suckers profusely. It can be used as a contour hedge in sandy arid areas for soil retention and moisture conservation.
The plant can be used for afforestation, especially for reclamation of forest lands which are affected by floods and in arid areas.
All parts of the plant are commonly used in Indian medicine. Leaves possess discutient properties and are applied to rheumatic swellings of the joints and in sprains. They are aromatic and are smoked for relief of headache and catarrh and a decoction is employed in smoke baths for the treatment of febrile, catarrhal and rheumatic affections. The leaves show anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-fungal activity. Roots are used in local medicine for dysentery and are anthelmintic, flowers are astringent & fruits are considered vermifuge.
It is propagated by cuttings.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Coppiceable, Drought Tolerant, Evergreen, Fast Growing, Fodder, Live Fencing, Medicinal, Ornamental, Pesticidal, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

Anjan (Hardwickia Binata/अंजन) is a moderate-sized deciduous ornamental tree which bears yellowish green flowers. It grows fairly fast.
Its leaves can be used as fodder or green manure. Mycorrhizal nodulations that fix atmospheric Nitrogen are noticed on the roots.
The tree thrives in a dry climate & is capable of establishing itself and growing on dry shallow soil & rocky ground where most other species would succumb. This is due partly to the early development of the taproot & the ability to penetrate hard soil & fissures in solid rock and partly to its ability to withstand mutilation.
The bark yields a strong fibre largely employed for making ropes.
It is propagated by seeds.
Labels: Agroforestry, Avenue, Deciduous, Drought Tolerant, Fast Growing, Fertilizer, Fodder, Nitrogen Fixing, Ornamental, Shade, Soil Reclamation, Urban, Wind Break

                                                                  To be continued...

Madhugandha..Sweet Odoured Tree

With its small shiny, thick, narrow, pointed leaves, straight trunk and spreading branches, it is a prized ornamental specimen. Indian Medlar or simply, Bakul (Mimusops Elengi/बकुळ, सुरभी) is a medium-sized evergreen tree having a well shaped dense, rounded canopy with rough dark grey bark.

Bakul is a very beautiful tree. The tree bears creamy white fragrant flowers and ovoid berries. The flowers have such a great fragrance that it fills the night air with the delicious heady aroma. Flowers are small, star-shaped with a crown rising from the center. In the morning the fragrant flowers which so graciously scented their surroundings with their deep, rich fragrance during the evening hours, fall to the ground. People love to collect them as they retain their odor for many days after they fall. They are offered in temples and shrines throughout the country.

The tree provides a dense shade. Also it gives useful green manure. Besides, due to its moderate size, it is a perfect candidate for urban plantations and home gardens. It is preferred along roads. The tree is said be useful in Apiaries and as a windbreak. Bakul has innumerable synonyms portraying its peculiarities like Surabhi meaning 'fragrant', Madhu gandha meaning 'sweet odoured' etc.

Bakul tree is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda and has been used for medicinal purpose since centuries. In Meghaduta, one of the highly esteemed ancient poetry of the great poet Kalidasa, there is a mention of Bakula tree. Sushruta has cited it to have astringent property and beneficial to alleviate kapha and pitta doshas in Sushruta Samhita. Chakradatta has also mentioned about its usefulness in dental diseases. The bark, flowers, fruits and seeds are cooling, anthelmintic, tonic and febrifuge. 

In Indian mythology, it is said to put forth blossoms when sprinkled with nectar from the mouth of lovely women. The Bakul tree is associated with Lord Trimurti and Bakula is one of His several names. The flower is offered to Gods and Goddesses throughout India. The tree is also sacred to the Buddhists and the Jain. Because of the flowers' ability to hold on to their fragrance for many days after they fall from the tree, the offering of the flower has a symbolic meaning - the flower signifies unwavering devotion. :-)

The Hard among Trees

Famed for its immense medicinal value, Indian Rose Chestnut, Cobra Saffron or Nagkesar (Mesua Ferrea/नागकेसर) is a handsome, medium-sized evergreen tree. Its botanical name Ferrea means 'belonging to iron' referring to its very hard & durable timber. It is often planted as an ornamental for its fragrant white flowers that yield a perfume.

The tree flowers during the dry season and flowers are bisexual. They has nice fragrance. The flushes of new leaves are produced just after flowering at the start of the rainy season. The new foliage can be strikingly attractive as it's red in colour which turns creamy yellow afterwards, giving the tree a wonderful appearance. The flower is the state flower of Tripura and the tree itself is the state tree of Mizoram.

The Nagkesar tree is very beautiful and known for its ornamental value. It is an attractive lawn tree with a regular, conical, bushy crown, vivid green leaves and showy, fragrant flowers. It is commonly grown along roadsides and in parks, a perfect species for urban plantation. Though it is equally useful, it is hardly considered as!

Environmentally, the tree very good! Its dense canopy provide shelter to many birds as well as shade. It provide abundant green manure for agriculture or garden. It also helps in Nitrogen fixing due to Endo-mycorrhizal associations. The seed meal of Nagkesar is a good source of protein & energy and its use as a feed ingredient for cattle is proposed.

Other uses include as a provider of good quality coal, tannin, dyes etc. The fragrant flowers are also used to stuff pillows, cushions and in cosmetic products & perfumes.

Medicinally, it is well known species in traditional medicine of Ayurveda and admired all over India as well as overseas. Many parts of the tree has digestant, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anthelmintic and haemostatic activity. It can be used in the treatment of numerous ailments like fever, itching, nausea, leprosy, skin disorders, erysipelas, bleeding piles, metrorrhagia, menorrhagia, excessive thirst and sweating. It also known to enhance the complexion. It leads to fragility transparency to the skin. Oil from the seeds is used for sores, scabies, wounds and rheumatism.

Probably that's the reason, Nagkesar tree is considered sacred in India!